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Sunday, January 07, 2018

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Dear Simon,
I have a question about phrasal verbs. In writing task, is it better to use phrasal verbs or just single word alternative?


1. Population in England is projected to be grown at 5.9%.
2. The number of people living in England is projected to be grown at 5.9%.
3. There was a slight increase in the population in England at 5.9%.
4. The projected population growth rate in Northern Ireland and Scotland population is almost alike.
5. Meanwhile, the growth prospects are expected to be at 3.2% in Scotland and 4.3% in Northern Ireland respectively.

Dear Simon,
In the sentence
"most of people have benefited from e-mail services and messengers like What’s up messenger or G-mail."

Should names of messengers be written with capital letters (WHAT'S UP) or should I put quotation marks?

Dear sjm and Simon

If the question asks me to talk about advantageS and disadvantageS, or to talk about causeS and solutionS, is it ok for me to use the second structure--to talk about only 1 solution or cause in detail?

Also, are there any differences if i talk about two rather than three causes? Is it better to have more ideas (talk about 3) or to discuss something in more detail (talk about 2)?

Thank you very much!

1. The Population Growth in England is projected to increase at 5.9%.

2. The number of population who live in England is projected to grow by 5.9%.

3. There is a slight increase in England's population by approximately 5.9%.

4. ??

5. The increase of the population is expected to be almost 3.2% in Scotland and 4.3% in Ireland.

1. The population growth in England is projected to increase by 5.9%.
2. The number of population living in England is projected to grow by 5.9%.
3. There was a slight increase in England's population by approximately 5.9%.
4. There is a similar growth rate of populaton of Northern Ireland and Scotland.
5. Meanwhile the growth of the population prospects are expected to be almost 3.2% in Scotland and 4.3% in Ireland.

@Jon

My boss once said to me: if you have to ask whether it is okay, then it obviously isn't.

As a noun "public" is usually preceded by "the" or some other determiner:

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=*+public_NOUN%2C*_DET+general+public_NOUN%2C*+American+public_NOUN%2Cin+public%2Cthe+publics%2Cof+publics%2Ctheir+publics%2Cand+publics%2Cmass+publics%2Cvarious+publics%2C*+wider+public_NOUN&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=

@Pavel

Phrasal verbs are in principle no different to any other word or phrase: the site below gives examples of formal and "academic" phrasal verbs.

https://dictionaryblog.cambridge.org/2015/08/05/they-carried-out-an-experiment-phrasal-verbs-in-formal-writing/

"Carried out an experiment", for instance, occurs over twenty eight thousand times in google books. See:
https://www.google.com/search?tbo=p&tbm=bks&q=%22carried+out+an+experiment%22&num=10

Google books does contain about one quarter fiction (as opposed to non-fiction), but even so "carried out" still seems to be perfectly acceptable in formal language:

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=carried+out%2C+carried+out%3Aeng_fiction_2012&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Ccarried%20out%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Ccarried%20out%3Aeng_fiction_2012%3B%2Cc0

The results for "shut up" are quite different:

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=shut+up%3Aeng_2012%2Cshut+up%3Aeng_fiction_2012&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Cshut%20up%3Aeng_2012%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cshut%20up%3Aeng_fiction_2012%3B%2Cc0

Words marked informal, colloquial, or slang in a dictionary must be avoided in the academic writing tasks. Using books.google.com is another way to find out whether a phrasal verb is used in neutral/formal/academic writing.

Using "carry out an experiment" instead of "perform an experiment" might well help to demonstrate "a wide range of vocabulary".

@Pavel

"Grown-ups" is suitable for fiction, but "adults" is for IELTS.

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=grown-ups%3Aeng_fiction_2012%2Cadults%2Cgrown-ups&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Cgrown%20-%20ups%3Aeng_fiction_2012%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cadults%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cgrown%20-%20ups%3B%2Cc0

"Point out" is more common than some alternatives:

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=point+out%2Cdraw+attention+to%2CIt+should+be+noted%2C+not+overlook&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Cpoint%20out%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cdraw%20attention%20to%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2CIt%20should%20be%20noted%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cnot%20overlook%3B%2Cc0

Also "rule out":
https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=bear+out+the+fact%2Cconfirm+the+fact%2Crule+it+out%2Cexclude+it%2Crule+out+the+possibility%2C+exclude+the+possibility&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Cbear%20out%20the%20fact%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cconfirm%20the%20fact%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Crule%20it%20out%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cexclude%20it%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Crule%20out%20the%20possibility%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cexclude%20the%20possibility%3B%2Cc0

"bring about":

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=brought+about+huge+changes%2Ccaused+huge+changes&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Cbrought%20about%20huge%20changes%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Ccaused%20huge%20changes%3B%2Cc0

1.Growth population in England is projected to increase by 5.9%.
2.The number of public living in England is projected to grow up 5.9%.
3.There was a slight increase in England's population by approximately 5.9%.
4.There is a same growth rate trend in Northern Ireland and Scotland population.
5.Meanwhile, the growth prospects are expected to be almost 3.2% in Scotland and 4.3% in Ireland respectively.

@ChengRung Charlie Wu

1) "Growth population" -> Population growth
2) see csaj's comments above re "public"
3) There was a slight increase in England's population by of approximately 5.9% . (If increase/rise/decrease/fall is a noun then the preposition is "of " not "by".
4) "a same" is just not used:

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=a+same%2C+the+same&case_insensitive=on&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t4%3B%2Ca%20same%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Ba%20same%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BA%20same%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Ba%20Same%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BA%20Same%3B%2Cc0%3B.t4%3B%2Cthe%20same%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bthe%20same%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BThe%20same%3B%2Cc0

-> in the populations of Northern Ireland and Scotland. (using the plural to make it clear that figures are separate, not combined).

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=the+population+of+Scotland%2Cthe+population+of+Northern+Ireland%2Cin+Scotland%27s+population%2Cin+the+population+of+Scotland%2Cnumber+of+people+in+Scotland%2Cpopulation+of+India+and+Pakistan%2C+populations+of+India+and+Pakistan&case_insensitive=on&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t4%3B%2Cthe%20population%20of%20Scotland%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bthe%20population%20of%20Scotland%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BThe%20population%20of%20Scotland%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bthe%20Population%20of%20Scotland%3B%2Cc0%3B.t4%3B%2Cthe%20population%20of%20Northern%20Ireland%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bthe%20population%20of%20Northern%20Ireland%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BThe%20population%20of%20Northern%20Ireland%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cin%20Scotland%20%27s%20population%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cin%20the%20population%20of%20Scotland%3B%2Cc0%3B.t4%3B%2Cnumber%20of%20people%20in%20Scotland%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3BNumber%20of%20People%20in%20Scotland%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bnumber%20of%20people%20in%20Scotland%3B%2Cc0%3B.t4%3B%2Cpopulation%20of%20India%20and%20Pakistan%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3BPopulation%20of%20India%20and%20Pakistan%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bpopulation%20of%20India%20and%20Pakistan%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cpopulations%20of%20India%20and%20Pakistan%3B%2Cc0

Note also that it is either "in Scotland's population" or "in the population of Scotland". We are referring to a specific population, not population in general in a sentence like "Population is a sensitive topic in some countries".

Whether "the" is needed with the 's ending depends on the country:

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=the+republic%27s+population%2Cthe+population+of+the+republic%2C+England%27s+population%2C+the+population+of+England&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Cthe%20republic%20%27s%20population%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cthe%20population%20of%20the%20republic%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2CEngland%20%27s%20population%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cthe%20population%20of%20England%3B%2Cc0

"the growth prospects" (for):

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=The+growth+prospects+are%2CGrowth+prospects+are%2CGrowth+prospects+in%2CThe+growth+prospects+in%2CGrowth+prospects+for%2C+The+growth+prospects+for&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2CGrowth%20prospects%20are%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2CGrowth%20prospects%20in%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2CGrowth%20prospects%20for%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2CThe%20growth%20prospects%20for%3B%2Cc0

NB you will need to press "Search lots of books" to follow the links successfully and see the graphs

Growth population in England is projected at 5.9%.
Rate of population growth in England is projected at 5.9%

The number of public living in England is projected to grow by 5.9%.
The number of population living in England is expected to grow by 5.9%.

There was a slight increase in England's population approximately 5.9%.
There is a predicted increase in England's population by approximately 5.9%.

There is alike growth rate trend in Northern Ireland and Scotland population.
There is a similar trend of increase in Northern Ireland and Scotland.

By meanwhile the growth prospects is expected to be almost 3.2% in Scotland and 4.3% in Ireland.
Meanwhile, the growth prospects are expected to be 3.2% in Scotland and 4.3% in Ireland.

@Levina
"population" already contains the idea of number, that is, "a count of the number of residents within a political or geographical boundary".
There are over twenty million results in Google books for "population" and less than eighty for "the number of population".

"There is a predicted increase": this phrase does not come up either. The following would be possible:
An increase of approximately 5.9% in England's population is predicted.

Note the preposition for the percentage after a noun is "of".

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=There+is+a+predicted+increase%2C+An+increase+of+*+%25&case_insensitive=on&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t2%3B%2CAn%20increase%20of%20%2A%20%25%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3BAn%20increase%20of%2010%20%25%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BAn%20increase%20of%201%20%25%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BAn%20increase%20of%2020%20%25%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BAn%20increase%20of%2050%20%25%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BAn%20increase%20of%2025%20%25%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BAn%20increase%20of%205%20%25%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BAn%20increase%20of%2030%20%25%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BAn%20increase%20of%2015%20%25%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BAn%20increase%20of%202%20%25%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BAn%20increase%20of%20100%20%25%3B%2Cc0

"Upward trend " is much more common on Google books than "trend of increase", which seems to be used mostly by authors with non-English-sounding names.

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=trend+of+increase%2Cupward+trend%2C*_ADJ+trend&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Ctrend%20of%20increase%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cupward%20trend%3B%2Cc0%3B.t2%3B%2C%2A_ADJ%20trend%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bgeneral_ADJ%20trend%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bupward_ADJ%20trend%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bdownward_ADJ%20trend%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bnew_ADJ%20trend%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bsame_ADJ%20trend%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bcurrent_ADJ%20trend%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bsimilar_ADJ%20trend%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Brecent_ADJ%20trend%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bterm_ADJ%20trend%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bpresent_ADJ%20trend%3B%2Cc0

Thanks csaj and Lolita for your help!

- Population growth in England is projected at 5.9%.
- The number of population in England is projected to grow by 5.9%.
- There was a 5.9% increase in England's population.
- There is a same growth rate in Northern Ireland and Scotland population.
- Meanwhile, the growth is expected to prospect to almost 3.2% in Scotland and 4.3% in Ireland.

- Population growth in England is projected at 5.9%.
- The number of population in England is projected to grow by 5.9%.
- There was a 5.9% increase in England's population.
- There is a similar growth rate in Northern Ireland and Scotland population.
- Meanwhile, the population is expected to prospect to almost 3.2% in Scotland and 4.3% in Ireland.

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