« IELTS Listening: just practise! | Main | IELTS Writing Task 1: recycling chart »

Wednesday, October 18, 2017

Comments

Feed You can follow this conversation by subscribing to the comment feed for this post.

Agree:
- People do not care about this as it does not really affect their present.
- Many people are too busy to do such activity due to financial unstability in today`s world.

Disagree:
- Forcing people is out of democracy and this will lead to many complaints, strikes and meetings.
- Monetary support for recycling activity can definetely help, as many people prioritize it

It is absurd to think that law will enforce people for recycling, better education and consequences of recycling their waste or goods, pursuit people recycle house litter.

Hello to Simon and to all other students,

Intro: I would say that to some extent I agree that governments should enact a new law on recycling, but only after other measure, such as education and campaigns, were not fruitful.

II: Why are education and campaigns important to be carried out first?
-raise awareness of pollution
-teach people to separate waste appropriately
-government should not punish people for failing to grasp the scale of the problem, but rather educate them on the matter

III: As a last step to be taken to enhance recycling, authorities should impose laws and fine heavily householders who are reluctant to recycle, although they are aware of the severe consequences of not doing so.

I hope that this organization of the essay would be acceptable.

Hi Simon, thank you for your website. If you can give me some feedback, I'll really appreciate.

It is obvious that we will do more recycling in our daily lives if recycling is forced to follow by law. In my opinion, our environment can be more comfortable when everyone with the mindset to do the recycling. However, there are various measures to take to promote the idea that recycling is significant rather than making it a regulation by law.

By making recycling is obliged, people can learn it quickly because we may get fined for breaking it. Also, the law will encourage us to follow the regulation so that we can get used to doing the recycling easily. Finally, we can view it is the proper way to do the recycling when the government emphasizes the value of doing the recycling.

On the other hand, we can figure out more than one ways to reinforce the concept that recycling is important. Firstly, we can emphasize the benefits from schools. For example, doing the recycling means to decrease the loading of the earth. We can then have a better quality of lives. Meanwhile, it helps to spend less on doing the recycling jobs. Secondly, the social community can form a group to share the importance of recycling. By doing the recycling from homes, the intention to lower the pollution, it can actually become the habit to do the recycling. Last but not the least, we can do the recycling from the company to bring the most efficiency. For example, in my company, the recycling culture is very popular so that everyone will follow the recycling rule automatically.

In conclusion, we can cultivate the concept of recycling by law as the main tool, yet it should not be the only way to carry out the recycling.

it is true that mostly people are not taking recycling things cincerely .while, they have no any guideness and clear idea about recycling.In this curse,i agree with the above view that official authorities regarding recycling make an effective rules to make it more prosper than ever.

is it correct sir?

Sorry to hurt you belle.you have used recycling word in every sentence.in my opinion,you should vary your structure and tense formation.I am also the ielts student and struggling to get 7band from each module.

Hi Simon,

I agree that creation of law for proper waste disposal and recycling will definitely help in increasing the amount of garbage that are being re-used.
Firstly, this will raise public awareness that improper handling of waste is a serious threat to the country.
Secondly, since it is a legal requirement, communities will not ignore the problem of incorrect waste disposal.
Instead, they will create an effective system for them to abide to the law.
And in return, individuals will slowly incorporate this activity to their everyday lives and not think of it as a burden.
An example of this is the way communities in Japan respond to "Waste Management Rule" by the government.
In each city, there is a schedule on what day to dispose a certain type of recyclable waste such as paper and plastics. If not done accordingly, the garbage collector will not pick these up.
Residents naturally follow the schedule by segregating the garbage and disposing them on the correct day.

In my opinion, I believe that implementation of recycling as a law can pave to a more disciplined community. However, this reinforcement can be appropriate after proper education to people on how to convert waste into reusable materials is done.

my opinion, In some countries, provide education about recycling waste not strongly enough to make them conscious about how important it is. Because there are many characteristics in one community, some people would like to changed after giving them education, but some are not. we need to forced them a little bit to make their minds changed.
Nowadays, some people are not really curious about recycling and we need to encourage them to do it by regulation. I realize that it is hard to forced someone to do something, but with education and proper regulation will convincing them to do so.

It is inevitable that household will produce waste, and we should increase our rates of recycling. However, by regarding the laws as the key measure to the exclusive we run the risk of neglecing many other steps could be taken.

1-develop the recycling facilities.
2-joint initiatives between the authorities and the private sector.
3-raise the level of awareness of the importance of recycling.


In my opinion,government should impose laws for recycling.

First, education from school to communities.Teach children how to separate waste and distinguish some materials can recycle ,some are not.

Second,develop and set more convenience recycling facilities, residents are willing to do recycle,but there is no useful facilities provide for them.

Third, authorities should punish person with finance, when people not followed the rule,one way is pay finance, or the garbage collector will not pick these up,

All methods are forced people a little bit to changed their minds to realize how important it's recycling.


In my opinion, Government should not force citizen recycle waste.
People can make something useful from their waste. It depend on their capacity and tools they have.
Government play an important role in recycling waste. Instead, insert many kind of waste bin. Building factory to transport gabage to power, fertilizer.

@ BELLE

re: obliged
https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=obligatory+*%2Ccompulsory+*%2Cmandatory+*%2Cobliged+to+*&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t2%3B%2Cobligatory%20%2A%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bobligatory%20for%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobligatory%20on%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobligatory%20in%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobligatory%20and%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobligatory%20to%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobligatory%20upon%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobligatory%20or%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobligatory%20that%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobligatory%20character%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobligatory%20by%3B%2Cc0%3B.t2%3B%2Ccompulsory%20%2A%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bcompulsory%20education%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bcompulsory%20for%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bcompulsory%20arbitration%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bcompulsory%20military%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bcompulsory%20school%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bcompulsory%20and%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bcompulsory%20in%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bcompulsory%20attendance%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bcompulsory%20purchase%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bcompulsory%20schooling%3B%2Cc0%3B.t2%3B%2Cmandatory%20%2A%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bmandatory%20for%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bmandatory%20retirement%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bmandatory%20in%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bmandatory%20to%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bmandatory%20and%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bmandatory%20that%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bmandatory%20or%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bmandatory%20minimum%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bmandatory%20power%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bmandatory%20if%3B%2Cc0%3B.t2%3B%2Cobliged%20to%20%2A%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bobliged%20to%20take%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobliged%20to%20make%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobliged%20to%20pay%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobliged%20to%20give%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobliged%20to%20do%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobliged%20to%20you%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobliged%20to%20go%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobliged%20to%20leave%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobliged%20to%20be%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bobliged%20to%20accept%3B%2Cc0

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=strain+on+the+earth%2Cdecrease+the+strain+on%2C+loading+of+the+earth&year_start=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Cstrain%20on%20the%20earth%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cdecrease%20the%20strain%20on%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cloading%20of%20the%20earth%3B%2Cc0

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=quality+of+life%2C+quality+of+lives&year_start=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Cquality%20of%20life%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cquality%20of%20lives%3B%2Cc0

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=*_VERB+pollution%2C+lower+the+pollution&year_start=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t2%3B%2C%2A_VERB%20pollution%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bprevent_VERB%20pollution%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Breduce_VERB%20pollution%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bis_VERB%20pollution%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bcontrol_VERB%20pollution%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bcause_VERB%20pollution%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Breducing_VERB%20pollution%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bavoid_VERB%20pollution%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bcontrolling_VERB%20pollution%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bwas_VERB%20pollution%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bincreasing_VERB%20pollution%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Clower%20the%20pollution%3B%2Cc0

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=become+the+habit%2Cbecome+a+habit&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Cbecome%20the%20habit%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cbecome%20a%20habit%3B%2Cc0

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=last+but+not+least%2C+last+but+not+the+least&year_start=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Clast%20but%20not%20least%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Clast%20but%20not%20the%20least%3B%2Cc0

Recycling will help reducing waste and it would be eco-friendly but the problem is how we can force citizens to do that.
Making and enforcing law might be one of the answer, however, it means the government can restrict our freedom and our right not to agree such a thought.
Hence, it would not be effective but education is the key to solve this question.
Constitute our daily lives without understanding each other is not democratic.
Therefore, I reccomend that people save our planet or ecological system not to obey the law but due to their goodwill.

Dear Sir,

Thank you for such a resourceful site. I think It is off-topic on this thread as I'm looking through all but different writing tasks that you provided earlier.
Here's the lesson:
http://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/2014/09/ielts-writing-task-2-happiness-essay.html

I am confused with your opinion in the conclusion. i think the question asks only to discuss.Could you help me or anyone on this one?

Dear Simon could you please Comment on the academic style and structural organization of this introduction and edit and rewrite it ??

Why do people from different cultures miscommunicate?

In this contemporary world there are thousands of countries and a wide variety of unique cultures. Sharing different beliefs or comparing cultural traditions across nations have already become the norm. Therefore, in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in gaining knowledge about multicultural communication. Multicultural communication may be defined as “A discipline seeking for the perception of cultures all around the world.” This discipline is the deciding factor if people can become a full-fledged part of our global society. However, studies have consistently shown that there is a chance for miscommunication. The aim of this paper is to examine the main reasons people may miscommunicate and misunderstand each other while interacting. Each one of them will be explained in the following way.

intro:
It is not always true that to stop the people from wasting things by law, however, if the authorities has the legal requirement, the citizen would be increase recycling.

@parvin
The best sentence for me is:

"The aim of this paper is to examine the main reasons people may miscommunicate and misunderstand each other while interacting."

Perhaps you need to add:
"... and the role played by cultural differences."

Even begin with this sentence and expand on it.

Hello, Simon, below is my answer:
Due to the fact that the recycling of domestic waste is not satisfactory, some people consider legislation as the only way to improve this situation. In my opinion, the law is neither the only way nor the best way to increase recycling.
The law requirement on recycling would be very difficult to enforce. It is a tough job for the law enforcement to determine violations of the law and quantify punishment. Specifically, how much waste do I need to recycle in order to meet the law requirement? If I didn’t meet the requirement, how would I be punished? Given the large amounts of households, it is impossible for the authorities to check one by one, which would compromise the effectiveness of the law. Ineffective laws would not help improve this kind of situation.
As far as I am concerned, there are many other ways to improve domestic waste recycling that are better than coding it into law. Recycling issue is very similar to energy problem, from which we can borrow many ideas. For instance, the government can increase the awareness of the public through education and campaign. Tax credits would be also a strong method if provided to the recycling industry and individual families. This kind of incentive would drive companies and individuals to increase the recycling from homes. As mentioned above, we can optimize waste recycling through many other ways, and making it a law requirement isn’t our only option.
In conclusion, I think the law only has limited effect on the problem of recycling inadequacy and thus, it is not the only solution to this problem.

According to a news item this is already happening:

"The level for incorrect materials [in recycling bins] sits at around 13 per cent for our area. The council's aim is to get that down to five per cent."

To do that they have introduced a new initiative involving teams of bin inspectors who check the contents of bins before they are picked up by the recycling truck.

Where they find non-recyclable materials in the bins which are less than 10 per cent of the total volume, the resident receives an orange warning tag and the bin is collected.

However if the wrong items are more than 10 per cent of the total volume, or if there are red flag items such as nappies, hazardous waste, liquid or wire, the bin is red tagged and will not be collected.

A letter explaining the reasons for non-collection is also put in the resident's mailbox

@Sean

Simon talks about leaving a completely blank, empty line between paragraphs.

http://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/2011/11/ielts-advice-big-mistakes.html

I would say that on the one hand imposing laws and extra fines is useful to tackle this issue, while on the other hand more complex approach is needed. It requires social campaigns and availability of necessary recycling bins in a walking distance.

Hi Simon,
Here is my view.
Agree.
1. Since only few people has the awareness of recycling.
2. The implementation of laws can restrict people to pollute. It’s becoming a obligation for people to recycle.

Hello all,
This is my first Introduction on this site and many thanks to Simon. Please evaluate.

Introduction:

It is true that few people believe that home wastage is not fully reused and they suggest an optimal way to handle this is making government policies mandatory. In my opinion law enforcement should be there but with proper education, guidance and infrastructure.


Please anybody evaluate it..so that I can do more practice.

@Tinks

Suggest you google the difference between "few people" and "a few people".

"home wastage" would refer to wasting food or water at home.

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=home+wastage%2Cdomestic+refuse%2Cdomestic+waste%2Cdomestic+rubbish%2C+domestic+trash&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Cdomestic%20refuse%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cdomestic%20waste%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cdomestic%20rubbish%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cdomestic%20trash%3B%2Cc0

@Kati

Thanks for updating me. I got the difference between few (almost near to none) and a few (some or not many). But the link which you have shared I did not get it. Sorry for my poor knowledge. Is it showing that "Home Wastage" are not correct words.

thanks a lot dear

Hi Simon, thank you for your website. If you can give me some feedback, I'll really appreciate.

Garbage in one of the most concerns in modern society. Some people state that household waste is not recycled thoroughly and the best way to promote recycling is for authorities to make it legislative regulations. In my opinion, beside legal requirements, awareness of individuals is the main factor which plays an important role to improve the recycling.

The recycling of household waste is still facing difficulties, especially in garbage collection and recycling techniques. Firstly, the gathering of household waste in rural areas is more complicated than in urban areas. This is because that there are not any companies or organizations specializing in gathering and processing garbage in rural areas. Furthermore, people in these areas still have a habit of throwing trash directly to the environment. In contrast, in urban areas, although most of the trash is collected, a large amount of it is not sorted based on recyclability. Therefore, almost all of garbage today is processed by burying or burning method instead of recycling. Moreover, in developing countries, the techniques and facilities for recycling have not been paid enough attention and investment. Consequently, the recycling in that areas is still an unanswerable question.

To promote recycling, the combination of authority’s legal regulations and awareness of each individual is necessary. The government should enact strict fines to behaviors of trash littering and impose environment taxes on food companies to encourage them to use reusable packaging in their products. That will improve significantly the recycling; however, it is not a radical method. The most viable way is that each household should raise awareness of recycling their waste by sorting the daily garbage and avoiding using the throw-away product. For example, people should recycle sorted-organic waste into fertilizer used for their own garden, or utilize other types of rubbish to make household items. Such method could promote the recycling and reduce significantly the amount of waste discharged into the environment.

In conclusion, the recycling of household waste is still limited nowadays. The combination of government and each individual is required to improve that issue. In my view, human awareness might seem the most important factor to resolve environmental issues.

@Tinks
"a few" (I expected less)
"few" (I expected more)
"only a few" (I expected more)

"domestic/household waste" = all the trash from apartments and houses.

"home wastage" = when you throw away food because you bought or cooked too much, or it has gone off.

@Dang Van Ha

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=one+of+the+*+concerns%2C&year_start=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t2%3B%2Cone%20of%20the%20%2A%20concerns%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bone%20of%20the%20major%20concerns%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bone%20of%20the%20chief%20concerns%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bone%20of%20the%20main%20concerns%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bone%20of%20the%20largest%20concerns%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bone%20of%20the%20first%20concerns%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bone%20of%20the%20primary%20concerns%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bone%20of%20the%20principal%20concerns%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bone%20of%20the%20central%20concerns%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bone%20of%20the%20greatest%20concerns%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bone%20of%20the%20leading%20concerns%3B%2Cc0

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=role+*+improving%2Crole+to+improve&year_start=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t2%3B%2Crole%20%2A%20improving%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Brole%20in%20improving%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Brole%20of%20improving%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Brole%20and%20improving%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Brole%20for%20improving%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Brole%20by%20improving%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Brole%20as%20improving%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Crole%20to%20improve%3B%2Cc0

" have not been paid given enough attention"

"in that areas" ?

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=unresolved+question%2Cunanswerable+question%2Cunresolved+issue&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Cunresolved%20question%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cunanswerable%20question%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cunresolved%20issue%3B%2Cc0

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=*_VERB+fines+for&year_start=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t2%3B%2C%2A_VERB%20fines%20for%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bimpose_VERB%20fines%20for%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bpay_VERB%20fines%20for%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bimposing_VERB%20fines%20for%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bpaid_VERB%20fines%20for%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Binstituted_VERB%20fines%20for%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bimposed_VERB%20fines%20for%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bwere_VERB%20fines%20for%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Blevying_VERB%20fines%20for%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Blevy_VERB%20fines%20for%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bpaying_VERB%20fines%20for%3B%2Cc0

->levy strict fines for trash littering

" the throw-away products. "

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=significantly+reduce%2Creduce+significantly%2C+significantly+improve%2C+improve+significantly&year_start=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Csignificantly%20reduce%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Creduce%20significantly%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Csignificantly%20improve%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cimprove%20significantly%3B%2Cc0

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=factor+*+resolving%2Cfactor+to+resolve&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t2%3B%2Cfactor%20%2A%20resolving%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bfactor%20in%20resolving%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bfactor%20for%20resolving%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cfactor%20to%20resolve%3B%2Cc0

"human awareness" ->raising environmental awareness

@Dang Van Ha

https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=not+been+paid+enough+attention%2Cnot+been+given+enough+attention&year_start=1960&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2Cnot%20been%20paid%20enough%20attention%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cnot%20been%20given%20enough%20attention%3B%2Cc0

"paid" here is just less common

It is true to say that reprocessing domestic waste is not properly managed by humans as well as government. Some say that imposing strict rules and regulations is the only possible solution for people to follow recycling. While legal requirements are of course essential, I agree with those who believe that other measures are as just as important.

To begin with, if authorities would impose law and penalized those people who reluctant to follow recycling might force to follow to do recycling. THis law encourage them to follow the regulations that they can get used to it easily. Likewise, if the government seriously emphasize about recycling, it is a citizen's responsibility to value his nation's norm.

However, I do believe that other solutions are also valuable to make people to reprocess waste from their home. Firstly, the government need to educate people different methods to recycle their domestic waste. For example, authorities can teach common people about how to segregate bio-waste from plastics and non degradable waste, and the techniques to decomposing bio-waste. Therefore, people can use this as natural fertilizers. Secondly, the government can conduct awareness programs to teach people about the benefits of recycling. Improper reprocessing means accumulation of waste and this improper waste management leads to pollution, contamination and spreading diseases. Finally,individual also need to play a role in recycling as not doing this may cause scarcity. Committed citizens have responsibility to prevent the extinction of renewable natural resources.

can anyone evaluate my essay
am very poor in writing and do not have proper guidance.

@lxmi

Actually your writing seems quite good to me (although an examiner might disagree). However, "those people who reluctant to follow recycling might force to follow to do recycling" is not clear to me.

Personally, I cannot see why government would wish to force recycling on individual citizens. After all, why do we need plastics at all? There is no good way to dispose of them; PLASTICS ARE FOREVER. They are already in the foodchain; if you've eaten fish lately, you've eaten plastic. What more could you want for your grandchildren?

Thank you Bandi
am really grateful to you
i vll keep your suggestion on mind and work on it

@lxmi

"Firstly, the government needs"
"Finally, individuals need"
"emphasize about recycling"

"humans" is only used when contrasting people with animals, aliens, God, and so on; same applies to "human beings".

https://www.google.com/search?q=%22humans%22&tbm=bks&ei=0mrvWda4N43t0AST6rzIAQ&start=10&sa=N&biw=1214&bih=953&dpr=1

if anyone is interested in combine study please let me know

@ bunter
thank you my dear

Anyone here taking the ielts test ( academic ) on November 11 in New Zealand ?

Verify your Comment

Previewing your Comment

This is only a preview. Your comment has not yet been posted.

Working...
Your comment could not be posted. Error type:
Your comment has been posted. Post another comment

The letters and numbers you entered did not match the image. Please try again.

As a final step before posting your comment, enter the letters and numbers you see in the image below. This prevents automated programs from posting comments.

Having trouble reading this image? View an alternate.

Working...

Post a comment

Your Information

(Name is required. Email address will not be displayed with the comment.)