Read the following excerpt from a passage about animal behaviour.
Thousands of experiments have been performed to study the preferences of hungry and thirsty animals. The results are universal: all animals are highly sensitive to subtle differences in amount of food or water.
Consider experiments using hungry pigeons. A pigeon is trained to peck at an illuminated button on the wall of its cage, and the experimenter follows each peck with delivery to the pigeon of a small amount of mixed grain. The pigeon soon learns to peck the button. Then the experimenter puts two illuminated buttons, a red one and a green one, side by side on the wall. If the pigeon pecks the red button, it gets 2 ounces of food; if it pecks the green button, it gets 1 ounce of food. Almost all pigeons soon learn to peck the red one and ignore the green one.
However, the results are completely different when a time delay is introduced after the red button is pecked. Virtually all pigeons strongly prefer 1 ounce of food delivered immediately to 2 ounces delayed by only 4 seconds.
(adapted from 'The Science of Self Control' by Howard Rachlin)
Are the statements below true, false or not given?
- Experiments using hungry and thirsty animals give inconsistent results.
- Pigeons can be taught to do simple actions in order to get a reward.
- Hungry pigeons choose the larger reward, regardless of whether they have to wait for it.